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Vitamins & Minerals

Vitamins & Minerals For Goats

Hand feeding goats

Vitamins and minerals are usually present in very small amounts in feeds. Mammals do not need a large amount of them. However, they are extremely important to animal health. Too much or too little of them can make an animal sick.

  • Information on Vitamins and Minerals from Cornell College of Agriculture and Life Sciences



Goat's Minerals & how to feed them:
  1. Sweetlix Magnum Milk Loose Minerals (free choice) Sweetlix has a good formulation of minerals without being overcrowded with too much salt.
  2. Sweetlix also has Minerals for your herd in general.
  3. There are other brands of Goat specific minerals-buy one of the good ones.
  4. Kelp/Herbamins (free choice) ...
  5. Salt (free choice) Redmond Sea Salt
  6. Replamin Gel (monthly) ...
  7. Copper Bolus (quarterly or as needed in your area)


Here are some of the symptoms associated with mineral deficiencies:

  • Selenium deficiency: Weak muscles, trouble breathing, turned down/crooked tails, weak pasterns/slippery feet, infertility, miscarriages, weak kids.
  • Zinc deficiency: Stiff joints, skin problems, low interest in breeding, deformed hooves, excessive salivating, flaky skin, poor coat condition
  • Copper deficiency: Fishtail, dull coat, coarse hair, hair that curls at the end only, abortion, stillbirths, weight loss, low milk supply, balding around eyes or bridge of nose.
  • Calcium & Phosphorus (usually found together) deficiency: Rickets, milk fever.
  • Iodine deficiency: Goiters.
  • Iron deficiency: Anemia, weakness.
  • Sodium deficiency: Licking the ground or eating dirt.
  • Manganese deficiency: Slow growth in kids, reduced fertility and stillbirths.
  • Boron: joint problems, arthritis

Feeding Your Goats:

The most important feature of goats diet should be free-choice, good quality hay or forage. However, they don't need the higher protein or calcium levels found in alfalfa or legume hay, so should be fed quality grass hay instead.


For growing kids and wethers, a higher protein grain ration (16% goat pellet) is appropriate until they’re about 6 – 8 months old. Limit grain rations to no more than 1 cup per goat two times daily unless they are pregnant or in milk. The calcium to phosphorus ratio should be similar to the two to one ratio of calcium to phosphorus in the goat mineral supplement.

It’s highly recommended that any grain ration fed to bucks and wethers of any age (bucks also sometimes need to be fed grain during breeding season to maintain condition) contain ammonium chloride, which helps prevent urinary calculi. Many like Kalmbach Game Plan Starter/Developer which has 16% protein, a coccidiostat, and ammonium chloride.

If you buy a 16% goat pellet from the local mill as I do, be sure to also get a few lbs of ammonium chloride for your bucks and wethers to prevent urinary calculi developing and killing them (happens quickly). Add a teaspoon to their goat ration daily, for 2 or more male goats.

AppleJo Farms is dedicated to breeding, nurturing and placing Registered Nigerian Dwarf Dairy Goats with Farms where they will flourish!


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